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Injuries

Summary

Injury is a major public health problem for children. Data to assess the magnitude of the problem are of variable quality and in need of continuous improvement, but it is clear that special risks exist for certain subgroups of the population, including different risks by ethnic group, age, and gender. It is important to examine data from multiple sources to understand the problem, including information about deaths as well as injuries resulting in hospitalization or outpatient (e.g., emergency department) care. Other types of injuries are not as easily captured in these data systems and require efforts to estimate risks through other means—for example, collecting data from social services or through research surveys about child abuse, from schools about sports injury, or from youth about employment-related injuries.

Research tracking the long-term effects of different types of injury suggests that the developmental outcomes of more severe injuries may be profound.

Injuries are not accidents. Causes can be identified and preventive strategies developed. There are numerous interventions to choose from in addressing prevention of traumatic injuries, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.

See also: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

Bibliography

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Haddon, William, Edward Suchman, and David Klein. Accident Research: Methods and Approaches. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.

Hennes, Halim, Martha Lee, Douglas Smith, John R. Sty, and Joseph Losek. "Clinical Predictors of Severe Head Trauma in Children."American Journal of Diseases of Children 142 (1988):1045-1047.

Jaffe, Kenneth, M., Gayle C. Fay, Nayak Lincoln Polissar, KathleenM. Martin, Hillary A. Shurtleff, J'May B. Rivara, and Richard Winn. "Severity of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury and Neurobehavioral Recovery at One Year: A Cohort Study." Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 74 (1993):587-595.

Koskiniemi, Marjaleena, Timo Kyykka, Taina Nybo, and Leo Jarho. "Long Term Outcome after Severe Burn Injury in Pre-schoolers Is Worse than Expected." Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine 149 (1995):249-254.

Runyan, Carol. "Using the Haddon Matrix: Introducing the Third Dimension." Injury Prevention 4 (1998):302-307.

System YRBS. "Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: United States, 1999." Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report 49 (2000):1-96.

Theodore, Andrea, and Desmond Runyan. "A Medical Research Agenda for Child Maltreatment: Negotiating the Next Steps." Pediatrics 104 (1999):168-177.

Wrightson, Philip, Valerie McGinn, and Dorothy Gronwall. "Mild Head Injury in Preschool Children: Evidence That It Can Be Associated with a Persisting Cognitive Defect." Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 59 (1995):375-380.

Carol W. Runyan

Janet Abboud Dal Santo

Kristen L. Kucera

Additional topics

Social Issues ReferenceChild Development Reference - Vol 4Injuries - Incidence Of Injuries To Children, Strategies To Ameliorate Injuries, Summary - Developmental Delays as a Result of Injury