Other Free Encyclopedias » Social Issues Reference » Child Development Reference - Vol 2

Classical Conditioning

stimuli evoke learning behavioral

Classical conditioning is a basic behavioral process in which stimuli come to evoke responses: When an object or event (such as food) that already evokes a behavior (such as salivation) is associated with one that does not (such as a bell), the latter may evoke a reaction similar to that of the first object or event. When the stimuli are no longer associated, the conditioning weakens (called extinction); when stimuli resemble the conditioned stimulus, they evoke similar reactions (called generalization). First systematically studied by Ivan P. Pavlov (1849-1936), classical conditioning became a model for all behavioral development. B. F. Skinner's (1904-1990) research, for a while, on the conditioning of voluntary (operant) behavior through reinforcement restricted its scope. Classical conditioning occurs only in the involuntary (respondent) behavior of reflexes, glands, and internal organs (e.g., orienting reactions, intestinal functions, insulin secretion, heart rate), especially as they participate in emotional behavior (e.g., anxiety, elation). Today, classical conditioning and extinction are widely used in the treatment of emotional disorders (e.g., phobias) and the side-effects of medical treatments (e.g., nausea caused by chemotherapy).

Bibliography

Catania, A. Charles. Learning, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice-Hall, 1998.

Kehoe, E. J., and M. Macrae. "Classical Conditioning." In WilliamO'Donohue ed., Learning and Behavior Therapy. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998.

Rescorla, R. A. "Pavlovian Conditioning: It's Not What You Think It Is." American Psychologist 43 (1988):151-160.

Edward K. Morris

Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate [next] [back] Class Size

User Comments

Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.
Hide my email completely instead?

Cancel or

Vote down Vote up

7 days ago

Just to add, we could really help share your posts and your website further. Let us know if we can be of help.

Vote down Vote up

7 days ago

This post reflects what many are thinking but are have no platform from which to voice. You allow us to do that collectively. Great post.

Vote down Vote up

2 months ago

It is really a nice and useful piece of info. I am happy that you just shared this useful info with us. Please stay us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.
http://mitra-seo.blogspot.com/

Vote down Vote up

3 months ago

If you are looking to promote this piece then we specialise in helping small businesses get found online. Sav

Vote down Vote up

3 months ago

Whether it be articles, designs or reports, your comments always give the guys in the office a good platform to dicuss from.  

Vote down Vote up

3 months ago

Interesting piece that I feel will give cause for discussions. Always good though. Keep it up. 

Vote down Vote up

7 months ago

Yes this such a great information classical conditioning and extinction are widely used in the treatment of emotional disorders etc.www.mezzmer.com

Vote down Vote up

7 months ago

The information and the aspect were just wonderful. I think that your viewpoint is deep, it’s just well thought out and truly incredible to see someone who knows how to put these thoughts so well. Good job!

Vote down Vote up

9 months ago

i have your link submitted in our site ,plz u can see on http://inmonarch.com/Reciprocallinks and exchange our link in your sites

Vote down Vote up

about 1 year ago

www.baileyselectrical.co.uk

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

I am glad that you have added some of the necessary information here about this album and this time would be the best for me because I got the info now that I always needed. Stand up collar shirts

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

sinful sexy toys.

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

"That is an extremely well written article.I'll make sure to bookmark it and return to learn more of your "

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

"You have taught me very well. Good stuff. Now a day, no need to go out of the internet because Internet itself showing many different and unknown information to us. Today I have got an useful information from your blog…"

Designer Jodhpuri suit

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

"I think its a very good sharing with us."

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

"I think its a very good sharing with us."

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

What an interesting article. I have never even thought about such psychological moments. I could not put these things together to make such conclusions.

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

If chinchin just say hello is a word, that the difference between the moan of monkey and what's different? In fact, the correct greeting, with the least words in one sentence must be clearly demonstrate your love and concern to the recipient.

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

The reason why a great man is great is that he adversity coexistence with others, others lost confidence, he has determined to achieve their goals.

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

These are one of the few posts that I actually care to comment on. I find this blogger an inspiration and is definitely worth following. I've became a subscriber too, so please keep me updated. Nehru suit

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

This is a very good post. I have to admit that one of the best bloggers I read. Thanks for posting this informative article.
Best Image Editing

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

I agree with your Blog and I will be back to check it more in the future so please keep up your work. I love your contentmichael kors outlet & the way that you write. It looks like you have been doing this for a while now, how long have you been blogging for?

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

Delicious COUTURE cups range has the ability to trick people. Individuals are few things above to resist any juicy premium attraction. You can easily search their grocer delicious premium eye glasses bring in.

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

I like your post. It is good to see you verbalize from the heart and clarity on this important subject can be easily observed.hormone replacement

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

With the complex and politically charged robocalls investigation still under way, Commissioner of Canada Elections William Corbett has retired and been replaced with a former justice department bureaucrat.



Since last year's election, Corbett has been overseeing the probe of fraudulent pre-recorded calls and misleading live calls reported by voters in 200 ridings across the country. It is believed to be the largest investigation the commissioner's office has ever conducted.



But in a surprise announcement Thursday, Elections Canada said Jimmy Choo Shoes Corbett has retired and been replaced by Yves Cote, the former associate deputy minister of justice.



A former officer with the Judge Advocate General's office, Cote was appointed as ombudsman for the Canadian Forces in 2005. When he left that post, Esprit de Corps magazine wrote that Cote "made it clear that he was not going to take the high-profile, often-adversarial towards the chain-of-command stance of his predecessor," Andre Marin.



Cote issued reports critical of the military, complaining in one report that "the Canadian Forces continue to treat military families like second-class citizens," but on Thursday Esprit de Corps publisher Scott Taylor described Cote's time as ombudsman as disappointing.



Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

The index showed China's industrial activity Tod's Shoes UK fell to a seven-month low of 48.1 in June from a final reading of 48.4 in May.

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

No animal in England knows the meaning of happiness or leisure after he is a year old. No http://www.officialjimmychoosales.com animal in England is free. The life of an animal is misery and slavery: that is the plain truth.

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

The new government takes over at a time when Greece is facing deep political and economic uncertainty.

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

Later on Thursday, the Spanish government is expected to give Tod's Shoes details of the state of its banks, which should shed some light on the scale of the likely bailout it will require from the European Union (EU).

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

Later on Thursday, the Spanish government is expected to give Tod's Shoes details of the state of its banks, which should shed some light on the scale of the likely bailout it will require from the European Union (EU).

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

"The collapse of the current atheistic order is reaching its time," he predicted, Jimmy Choo shoes citing wars, turmoil in the Middle East, and disasters that shaped the world.

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

Photo by Steve Sisney

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

Miami Heat power forward Chris Bosh

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

http://social.jrank.org/pages/137/Classical-Conditioning.html

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

louis vuitton
[url=http://www.lm:ouisvuissttonoutletbbh.com]louis vuitton[/url]
http://www.louisvuittoddnoutletbbh.com

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

Hermes bags are considered a

href="http://www.cheaphermeshandbag.net/">Hermes

Outlet combination of utility and exquisite

appearance. Carrying a Hermes bag, can be seen as a symbol of

status and attract a lot of envious looks from passersby.

Hermes handbags are very reasonable for their superior quality

and excellent craftsmanship. One of the most well received om

Hermes

Handbags Outlet Online the collection bag is the

Hermes Birkin Hermes bag, which is priced

href="http://www.cheaphermeshandbag.net/hermes-kelly-c-

23.html/">Hermes Kelly Handbag at $ 6,000.

Prices vary according to different models and materials.

The name "Birkin" comes from the actress

href="http://www.cheaphermeshandbag.net/">Cheap Hermes

Handbags. There are several designs of Hermes

Birkin bags for women to choose. Many women like

href="http://www.cheaphermeshandbag.net/">Hermes Bags

Outlet to buy more pieces, even if they had one as

these bags are considered superior taste of the fashion trends.

Owning one can immediately rises one to a higher state of

fashion. The feature
Cheap Hermes Birkin Handbags

elegant and I hope that Hermes Birkin bags offer

href="http://www.cheaphermeshandbag.net/hermes-wallets-c-

48.html/">Hermes Wallets outlet women the

most whisper after brands in the range ready to buy the

majority of women.

Hermes Birkin bags are usually very Cheap Hermes Bags Men

expensive, so it could go well beyond the reach of middle-class

people, mostly children. For people with a limited budget, a

replica could be the best substitute. There are many retailers

and online vendors that provide replicas. Before you buy, you

should also consider whether Hermes replica handbags are priced

too high compared with their quality and distinction. Quality,

Hermes

Handbags design, and points are some of the brands

that cause women to determine if the handbag or Hermes replica

handbags are sold as originals.

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Superb! Generally I never read whole articles but the way you wrote this information is simply amazing and this kept my interest in reading and I enjoyed it.

cheap NFL Giants jerseys Sale

cheap NBA Knicks Lin jerseys Sale

cheap NHL Chicago



Blackhawks jerseys Sale

cheap NHL Toronto Maple



Leafs jerseys Sale

cheap MLB Toronto Blue Jays jerseys

cheap MLB Red Sox jerseys

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

good, enjoyed while reading.

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

This is my first time i visit here. I found so many entertaining stuff in your blog, especially its discussion. From the tons of comments on your posts, I guess I am not the only one having all the enjoyment here! Keep up the excellent work.
resume writing service

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

this is very good information